To download the White-Paper, press here.


As part of the 5G-PPP Initiative, the Software Network Working Group prepared this white paper as a follow-up of 2018 Cloud-Native transformation white paper to analyze how 5G-PPP projects[1] interpret Cloud-Native design patterns and identify adoption barriers. The Software Network Working Group conducted a survey to collect technical inputs from 5G-PPP Phase 2[2] and Phase 3[3] projects on their:

  • supported vertical use-cases,
  • adopted virtualization technologies,
  • followed architecture patterns.

Results are two-fold:

  • Projects are clustered according to their architecture patterns:
    1. Most project prototypes evolved from ETSI MANO relying on an Openstack VIM exclusively to include Kubernetes – on bare metal and public cloud – as a new VIM in parallel to Openstack.
    2. Meanwhile, they kept orchestration intelligence centralized in a VNFM-like box.
    3. Therefore, only a few of them fully exploited Kubernetes as a complete autonomous platform with its own orchestration intelligence able to host both Containerized Network Functions and classical VM-based VNFs.
  • Analysis:
    1. We acknowledge a reluctance for using fully Cloud-Native design provided by e.g. Kubernetes. This reluctance has been analyzed to extract the underlying reasons motivating projects to select this intermediate step where Kubernetes is considered only as a VIM. These reasons are presented as the barriers to adopt the Cloud-Native patterns.
    2. These barriers are essentially the lack of standard and technological maturity, implying human adaptation resistance.

[1] NGPaaS, 5G-MEDIA , 5G-Transformer, 5G-City, 5G-Picture,  5GTANGO, SAT5G, MATILDA, Slicenet, METROHAUL, NRG5, and Phase 3 project 5GENESIS.

[2] 5GPPP Phase 2 Projects – 

[3] 5GPPP Phase 3 Projects –