To download the White-Paper, press here.
As part of the 5G-PPP Initiative, the Software Network Working Group prepared this white paper as a follow-up of 2018 Cloud-Native transformation white paper to analyze how 5G-PPP projects interpret Cloud-Native design patterns and identify adoption barriers. The Software Network Working Group conducted a survey to collect technical inputs from 5G-PPP Phase 2 and Phase 3 projects on their:
- supported vertical use-cases,
- adopted virtualization technologies,
- followed architecture patterns.
Results are two-fold:
- Projects are clustered according to their architecture patterns:
- Most project prototypes evolved from ETSI MANO relying on an Openstack VIM exclusively to include Kubernetes – on bare metal and public cloud – as a new VIM in parallel to Openstack.
- Meanwhile, they kept orchestration intelligence centralized in a VNFM-like box.
- Therefore, only a few of them fully exploited Kubernetes as a complete autonomous platform with its own orchestration intelligence able to host both Containerized Network Functions and classical VM-based VNFs.
- We acknowledge a reluctance for using fully Cloud-Native design provided by e.g. Kubernetes. This reluctance has been analyzed to extract the underlying reasons motivating projects to select this intermediate step where Kubernetes is considered only as a VIM. These reasons are presented as the barriers to adopt the Cloud-Native patterns.
- These barriers are essentially the lack of standard and technological maturity, implying human adaptation resistance.